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Core Health & Fitness
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Health Club Management

Health Club Management

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UNITING THE WORLD OF FITNESS
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Health Club Management

Health Club Management

features

Short story

There’s been a surge in interest in short, but intense exercise regimes – known as high-intensity interval training – in the fitness sector. We investigate the background and benefits of this protocol for spas

By Kate Cracknell | Published in Spa Business 2012 issue 4
“We must establish a common vocabulary to avoid fancy names for programmes that have existed for 40 years”

Research papers

A 2005 study of 38 elite cyclists, published in the Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, showed that interval training leads to improved respiratory function, including better blood flow through the lungs and oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange. In the study, HIT increased performance by improving ventilatory threshold and VO2 max, boosting the body’s ability to use oxygen to generate energy.

Another study, published in the Journal of Physiology in July 2006, found improved adaptations in muscle cells after interval training in contrast to traditional steady-state endurance training. The study compared two groups of active young men over two weeks. One group engaged in traditional long-duration training for 90–120 minutes, while the other did four to six sets of sprint intervals (30 seconds all-out and four-minute rest intervals). It revealed superior adaptations in muscle tissue of the HIT group.

HIT led to improved respiratory function
HIT led to improved respiratory function

Literature review

AUT University’s review of 45 published journal articles, carried out on behalf of Les Mills, focused on 24 papers that compared HIT with steady-state moderate intensity exercise. The authors focused on moderately trained recreational athletes through to those with general metabolic syndrome (including obesity and hypertension) as more representative of the general population. The training studies ranged from two to 20 weeks, with typically three to five sessions a week.

Some studies used supra-maximal intensity (up to a reported 170 per cent of VO2 max). But most used ‘work’ phases of around 90 per cent VO2 max – also described as 15-17 out of 20 on a self-rating scale of perceived exertion (hard to very hard). Sessions generally lasted around 40 minutes, including work and recovery phases: work phases were typically 30 seconds to two minutes; with recovery mostly one to four minutes of light to moderate exercise (70 per cent HR max).

In several studies HIT produced 5-10 per cent greater increases in VO2 max, often in less time. In some cases even greater differences were observed. Where the steady state group did experience significantly greater increases in VO2 max “it was patently owing to very big differences in training volume”.

In all cases, HIT produced greater improvements in anaerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, endothelin function and body fat levels, with significantly greater reductions also observed in systolic and diastolic pressure in several studies.

Although often anecdotally quoted as a benefit of HIT, only one study specifically examined EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption) and found no significant difference compared with steady-state moderate intensity exercise.

Several of the papers commented anecdotally that subjects typically reported their enjoyment of interval-style training more than steady-state training, leading to good adherence.

The authors of the review found no evidence that repeat high intensity exercise bouts had a harmful effect on any of the populations. They also found no evidence that exercise intensity alone has a negative effect on resting hormone levels (testosterone, cortisol etc).

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HIT training principles have been used by athletes the world over since the 1930s
HIT training principles have been used by athletes the world over since the 1930s
The milon circuit uses traffic lights to take exercisers through a 30 minute workout
The milon circuit uses traffic lights to take exercisers through a 30 minute workout
HIT has been proven to help generate powerful, athletic muscle
HIT has been proven to help generate powerful, athletic muscle
In several studies, HIT produced 5-10 per cent greater increases in VO2 max
In several studies, HIT produced 5-10 per cent greater increases in VO2 max
https://www.leisureopportunities.co.uk/images/SB2012_4story.gif
High intensity exercise regimes are a coming trend for wellness providers
Randy Huntington, Keiser, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, Journal of Physiology, Manfred Scholich, Bruce Hastings, Les Mills International, AUT University, ,spa fitness, fitness, high intensity interval training, interval training, HIT, fartlek, circuit training, exercise programme
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Catalogue Gallery
Click on a catalogue to view it online
Directory
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Diary dates
03-03 Dec 2020
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ExCeL London, London, United Kingdom
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tbc, Dunedin, New Zealand
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features

Short story

There’s been a surge in interest in short, but intense exercise regimes – known as high-intensity interval training – in the fitness sector. We investigate the background and benefits of this protocol for spas

By Kate Cracknell | Published in Spa Business 2012 issue 4
“We must establish a common vocabulary to avoid fancy names for programmes that have existed for 40 years”

Research papers

A 2005 study of 38 elite cyclists, published in the Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, showed that interval training leads to improved respiratory function, including better blood flow through the lungs and oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange. In the study, HIT increased performance by improving ventilatory threshold and VO2 max, boosting the body’s ability to use oxygen to generate energy.

Another study, published in the Journal of Physiology in July 2006, found improved adaptations in muscle cells after interval training in contrast to traditional steady-state endurance training. The study compared two groups of active young men over two weeks. One group engaged in traditional long-duration training for 90–120 minutes, while the other did four to six sets of sprint intervals (30 seconds all-out and four-minute rest intervals). It revealed superior adaptations in muscle tissue of the HIT group.

HIT led to improved respiratory function
HIT led to improved respiratory function

Literature review

AUT University’s review of 45 published journal articles, carried out on behalf of Les Mills, focused on 24 papers that compared HIT with steady-state moderate intensity exercise. The authors focused on moderately trained recreational athletes through to those with general metabolic syndrome (including obesity and hypertension) as more representative of the general population. The training studies ranged from two to 20 weeks, with typically three to five sessions a week.

Some studies used supra-maximal intensity (up to a reported 170 per cent of VO2 max). But most used ‘work’ phases of around 90 per cent VO2 max – also described as 15-17 out of 20 on a self-rating scale of perceived exertion (hard to very hard). Sessions generally lasted around 40 minutes, including work and recovery phases: work phases were typically 30 seconds to two minutes; with recovery mostly one to four minutes of light to moderate exercise (70 per cent HR max).

In several studies HIT produced 5-10 per cent greater increases in VO2 max, often in less time. In some cases even greater differences were observed. Where the steady state group did experience significantly greater increases in VO2 max “it was patently owing to very big differences in training volume”.

In all cases, HIT produced greater improvements in anaerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, endothelin function and body fat levels, with significantly greater reductions also observed in systolic and diastolic pressure in several studies.

Although often anecdotally quoted as a benefit of HIT, only one study specifically examined EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption) and found no significant difference compared with steady-state moderate intensity exercise.

Several of the papers commented anecdotally that subjects typically reported their enjoyment of interval-style training more than steady-state training, leading to good adherence.

The authors of the review found no evidence that repeat high intensity exercise bouts had a harmful effect on any of the populations. They also found no evidence that exercise intensity alone has a negative effect on resting hormone levels (testosterone, cortisol etc).

Sign up here to get HCM's weekly ezine and every issue of HCM magazine free on digital.
HIT training principles have been used by athletes the world over since the 1930s
HIT training principles have been used by athletes the world over since the 1930s
The milon circuit uses traffic lights to take exercisers through a 30 minute workout
The milon circuit uses traffic lights to take exercisers through a 30 minute workout
HIT has been proven to help generate powerful, athletic muscle
HIT has been proven to help generate powerful, athletic muscle
In several studies, HIT produced 5-10 per cent greater increases in VO2 max
In several studies, HIT produced 5-10 per cent greater increases in VO2 max
https://www.leisureopportunities.co.uk/images/SB2012_4story.gif
High intensity exercise regimes are a coming trend for wellness providers
Randy Huntington, Keiser, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, Journal of Physiology, Manfred Scholich, Bruce Hastings, Les Mills International, AUT University, ,spa fitness, fitness, high intensity interval training, interval training, HIT, fartlek, circuit training, exercise programme
Latest News
The UK government has published its impact report for the three-tier COVID-19 alert system, which ...
Latest News
Professor Chris Whitty, the chief medical officer for England, has said exercise and physical activity ...
Latest News
Nick Whitcombe, the independent gym owner who refused to shut his gym during the October ...
Latest News
This year's UK government Spending Review, announced in Parliament by chancellor Rishi Sunak on 25 ...
Latest News
Up to 100k people will benefit from the free gym and physical activity sessions, thanks ...
Latest News
To the relief of the sector, the UK government confirmed yesterday (23 November) that gyms, ...
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Closing gyms and leisure facilities during any possible future lockdown would be "unthinkable", according to ...
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Featured supplier news
Featured supplier: Active IQ launches End-point Assessor qualification
Active IQ has launched its Level 3 Award in Understanding the Development and Delivery of End-point Assessment to meet the increasing demands for skilled assessors in this emerging area.
Featured supplier news
Featured supplier: Dr Paul Bedford announces Retention Convention will go virtual for 2020
Global retention expert, Dr Paul Bedford, will host his sixth annual Retention Convention virtually, bringing together global speakers to form a documentary-style event around turning customers into communities.
Company profiles
Company profile: Keiser UK Ltd
Keiser began its history of visionary sports science leadership over 40 years ago, rejecting the ...
Company profiles
Company profile: Life Fitness
Through our Life Fitness Solutions Partners, we can deliver design and build services, finance solutions, ...
Supplier Showcases
Supplier showcase - Powering through
Catalogue Gallery
Click on a catalogue to view it online
Directory
Whole body cryotherapy
Art of Cryo: Whole body cryotherapy
Software
Volution.fit: Software
Trade associations
International SPA Association - iSPA: Trade associations
Red Light Therapy
 Red Light Rising: Red Light Therapy
Management software
fibodo Limited: Management software
Spa software
SpaBooker: Spa software
Direct debit solutions
Harlands Group: Direct debit solutions
Gym flooring
REGUPOL/Berleburger Schaumstoffwerk (BSW): Gym flooring
Fitness equipment
TRX Training: Fitness equipment
Fitness Software
FunXtion International BV: Fitness Software
Property & Tenders
11 - 25 Union St, London SE1 1SD
Bankside Open Spaces Trust
Property & Tenders
Waltham Abbey, Essex
Lee Valley Regional Park Authority
Property & Tenders
Diary dates
03-03 Dec 2020
Virtual,
Diary dates
09 Dec 2020
Raffles City Convention Centre, Singapore, Singapore
Diary dates
02-04 Feb 2021
Ericsson Exhibition Hall, Ricoh Arena, Coventry, United Kingdom
Diary dates
23-26 Feb 2021
IFEMA, Madrid, Spain
Diary dates
03-04 Mar 2021
NEC, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Diary dates
03-06 Jun 2021
Expo Centre & Riviera di Rimini, Italy
Diary dates
16-17 Jun 2021
ExCeL London, London, United Kingdom
Diary dates
01-07 Dec 2022
tbc, Dunedin, New Zealand
Diary dates
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